Unit 1.4: Hướng dẫn làm bài tập “Short Answer Questions” – Full Passage 2

I. REVIEW

Khi làm bài tập dạng câu hỏi Short Answer, chúng ta cần chú ý các điểm sau:

– Giới hạn số lượng từ cho mỗi đáp án

– Câu trả lời sẽ xuất hiện theo đúng trật tự bài đọc

– Xác định đáp án là loại từ nào (Noun/Verb/Adjective/Adverb)

– Lưu ý câu trả lời không nhất thiết phải đúng ngữ pháp, chỉ cần đúng ý

– Bắt key word trong câu hỏi, tìm synonyms hoặc paraphrase key words

II. FULL  PASSAGE

Changing Our Understanding of Health

A – The concept of health holds different meanings for different people and groups. These meanings of health have also changed over time. This change is no more evident than in Western society today, when notions of health and health promotion are being challenged and expanded in new ways.

B – For much of recent Western history, health has been viewed in the physical sense only. That is, good health has been connected to the smooth mechanical operation of the body, while ill health has been attributed to a breakdown in this machine. Health in this sense has been defined as the absence of disease or illness and is seen in medical terms. According to this view, creating health for people means providing medical care to treat or prevent disease and illness. During this period, there was an emphasis on providing clean water, improved sanitation and housing.

C – In the late 1940s the World Health Organisation challenged this physically and medically oriented view of health. They stated that ‘health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease’ (WHO, 1946). Health and the person were seen more holistically (mind/body/spirit) and not just in physical terms.

D – The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. Specific behaviours which were seen to increase risk of disease, such as smoking, lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits, were targeted. Creating health meant providing not only medical health care, but health promotion programs and policies which would help people maintain healthy behaviours and lifestyles. While this individualistic healthy lifestyles approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society), people experiencing poverty, unemployment, underemployment or little control over the conditions of their daily lives benefited little from this approach. This was largely because both the healthy lifestyles approach and the medical approach to health largely ignored the social and environmental conditions affecting the health of people.

E – During 1980s and 1990s there has been a growing swing away from seeing lifestyle risks as the root cause of poor health. While lifestyle factors still remain important, health is being viewed also in terms of the social, economic and environmental contexts in which people live. This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health. The broad socio-ecological view of health was endorsed at the first International Conference of Health Promotion held in 1986, Ottawa, Canada, where people from 38 countries agreed and declared that:
The fundamental conditions and resources for health are peace, shelter, education, food, a viable income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity. Improvement in health requires a secure foundation in these basic requirements. (WHO, 1986) .

It is clear from this statement that the creation of health is about much more than encouraging healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles and providing appropriate medical care. Therefore, the creation of health must include addressing issues such as poverty, pollution, urbanisation, natural resource depletion, social alienation and poor working conditions. The social, economic and environmental contexts which contribute to the creation of health do not operate separately or independently of each other. Rather, they are interacting and interdependent, and it is the complex interrelationships between them which determine the conditions that promote health. A broad socio-ecological view of health suggests that the promotion of health must include a strong social, economic and environmental focus.

F – At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health. This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains as the backbone of health action today. In exploring the scope of health promotion it states that:

Good health is a major resource for social, economic and personal development and an important dimension of quality of life. Political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, behavioural and biological factors can all favour health or be harmful to it. (WHO, 1986) .

The Ottawa Charter brings practical meaning and action to this broad notion of health promotion. It presents fundamental strategies and approaches in achieving health for all. The overall philosophy of health promotion which guides these fundamental strategies and approaches is one of ‘enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health’ (WHO, 1986).

Questions 1 – 4
You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 1-4
Look at Questions 1 – 4 below. Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage, answer the following questions. Write your answers in boxes 1 – 4 on your Answer Sheet.

 

Q1. In which year did the World Health Organization define health in terms of mental, physical and social well-being?

Q2. Which members of society benefited most from the healthy lifestyles approach to health?

Q3. Name the three broad areas which relate to people’s health, according to the socio-ecological view of health.

Q4. During which decade were lifestyle risks seen as the major contributors to poor health?

 

 III. DISCUSSIONS

Bây giờ chúng ta cùng nhau tư duy và chọn đáp án đúng các em nhé:

Lưu ý đáp án không nhiều hơn 3 từ các em nhé.

(1) Cần tìm một năm. Đáp án cần tìm phải là một năm nào đó đi chung với từ WHO và các từ khóa như “mental, physical, an social well-being

–>> They stated that ‘health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease’ (WHO, 1946).

–>> Đáp án: 1946

(2) Cần đáp án ám chỉ một nhóm người . Đáp án này cần đi chung với các từ khóa như “healthy lifestyles approach

–>> While this individualistic healthy lifestyles approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society), people experiencing poverty, unemployment, underemployment or little control over the conditions of their daily lives benefited little from this approach

–>> The wealthy (members)

(3) Cần đáp án là ba lĩnh vực, có thể là 3 danh từ hoặc tính từ. Đi chung với cụm từ “the socio-ecological view of health

–>> While lifestyle factors still remain important, health is being viewed also in terms of the social, economic and environmental contexts in which people live. This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health.

–>> Đáp án: social, economic, environmental

(4) Cần đáp án là một decade, hay được viết ở dạng 19xxs.

–>> The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. Specific behaviours which were seen to increase risk of disease, such as smoking, lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits, were targeted.

–>> Đáp án: (The) 1970s

Short Answer Questions không phải là một phần khó. Quan trọng nhất đối với dạng bài tập này là khả năng bắt keyword trong câu hỏi và tìm synonym/paraphrase của keyword đó. Vì thế khi học từ các bạn chú ý luyện tập paraphrase hoặc tìm synonym của từ vừa học nhé. Bên cạnh đó, chúng mình cũng nên quan tâm đến số lượng từ được cho phép trong một đáp án nữa nhé.

Chúc các bạn học tốt <3

Unit 1.3: Hướng dẫn làm bài tập “Short Answer Questions” – Full Passage 1

I. REVIEW

Khi làm bài tập dạng câu hỏi Short Answer, chúng ta cần chú ý các điểm sau:

– Giới hạn số lượng từ cho mỗi đáp án

– Câu trả lời sẽ xuất hiện theo đúng trật tự bài đọc

– Xác định đáp án là loại từ nào (Noun/Verb/Adjective/Adverb)

– Lưu ý câu trả lời không nhất thiết phải đúng ngữ pháp, chỉ cần đúng ý

– Bắt key word trong câu hỏi, tìm synonyms hoặc paraphrase key words

II. FULL  PASSAGE

                 BENEATH THE CANOPY

1. The world’s tropical rainforests comprise some 6% of the Earth’s land area and contain more than half of all known life forms, or a conservative estimate of about 30 million species of plants and animals. Some experts estimate there could be two or even three times as many species hidden within these complex and fast- disappearing ecosystems; scientists will probably never know for certain, so vast is the amount of study required.

2. Time is running out for biological research. Commercial development is responsible for the loss of about 17 million hectares of virgin rainforest each year – a figure approximating 1% of what remains of the world’s rainforests.

3. The current devastation of once impenetrable rainforest is of particular concern because, although new tree growth may in time repopulate felled areas, the biologically diverse storehouse of flora and fauna is gone forever. Losing this bountiful inheritance, which took millions of years to reach its present highly evolved state,
would be an unparalleled act of human stupidity.

4. Chemical compounds that might be extracted from yet-to-be-discovered species hidden beneath the tree canopy could assist in the treatment of disease or help to control fertility. Conservationists point out that important medical discoveries have already been made from material found in tropical rainforests. The drug aspirin, now synthesised, was originally found in the bark of a rainforest tree. Two of the most potent anti- cancer drugs derive from the rosy periwinkle discovered in the 1950s in the tropical rainforests of Madagascar.

5. The rewards of discovery are potentially enormous, yet the outlook is bleak. Timber-rich countries mired in debt, view potential financial gain decades into the future as less attractive than short-term profit from logging. Cataloguing species and analysing newly-found substances takes time and money, both of which are in short supply.

6. The developed world takes every opportunity to lecture countries which are the guardians of rainforest . Rich nations exhort them to preserve and care for what is left, ignoring the fact that their wealth was in large part due to the exploitation of their own natural world.

7. It is often forgotten that forests once covered most of Europe. Large tracts of forest were destroyed over the centuries for the same reason that the remaining rainforests are now being felled – timber. As well as providing material for housing, it enabled wealthy nations to build large navies and shipping fleets with which to continue their plunder of the world’s resources.

8. Besides, it is not clear that developing countries would necessarily benefit financially from extended bioprospecting of their rainforests. Pharmaceutical companies make huge profits from the sale of drugs with little return to the country in which an original discovery was made.

9. Also, cataloguing tropical biodiversity involves much more than a search for medically useful and therefore commercially viable drugs. Painstaking biological fieldwork helps to build immense databases of genetic, chemical and behavioural information that will be of benefit only to those countries developed enough to use them.

10. Reckless logging itself is not the only danger to rainforests. Fires lit to clear land for further logging and for housing and agricultural development played havoc in the late 1990s in the forests of Borneo. Massive clouds of smoke from burning forest fires swept across the southernmost countries of South-East Asia choking cities and reminding even the most resolute advocates of rainforest clearing of the swiftness of nature’s retribution.

11. Nor are the dangers entirely to the rainforests themselves. Until very recently, so-called “lost” tribes – indigenous peoples who have had no contact with the outside world – still existed deep within certain rainforests. It is now unlikely that there are any more truly lost tribes. Contact with the modern world inevitably brings with it exploitation, loss of traditional culture, and, in an alarming number of instances, complete obliteration.

12. Forest-dwellers who have managed to live in harmony with their environment have much to teach us of life beneath the tree canopy. If we do not listen, the impact will be on the entire human race. Loss of biodiversity, coupled with climate change and ecological destruction will have profound and lasting consequences.

Questions 1 – 3
You are advised to spend about 4 minutes on Questions 1-3
Look at Questions 1 – 3 below. Write your answers in boxes 1 – 3 on your Answer Sheet.

 

Q1. How many medical drug discoveries does the article mention?

Q2.  What two shortages are given as the reason for the writer’s pessimistic outlook?

Q3.  Who will most likely benefit from the bioprospecting of developing countries’ rainforests?

III. DISCUSSIONS

Bây giờ chúng ta cùng nhau tư duy và chọn đáp án đúng các em nhé:

(1) Đáp án là một con số. Bài đọc có thể cho đáp án trực tiếp ở dạng số hoặc dạng chữ. Tuy nhiên, cũng có thể người đọc phải đếm các loại medicine drug được nhắc đến trong bài. Các đáp án được kỳ vọng đi cùng từ khóa “discoveries” hoặc synonyms của từ này.

–>> The drug aspirin, now synthesised, was originally found in the bark of a rainforest tree. Two of the most potent anti- cancer drugs derive from the rosy periwinkle discovered in the 1950s in the tropical rainforests of Madagascar.

–>> Đáp án: Three

(2) Cần tìm hai đáp án là hai danh từ. Đi chung với các từ khóa “shortage”, “pessimistic outlook”. Tuy nhiên, có thể trong bài đã paraphrases các key words này.

–>> The rewards of discovery are potentially enormous, yet the outlook is bleak. ………………takes time and money, both of which are in short supply.

–>> Đáp án: Time and money

(3) Đáp án cần tìm là danh từ, tổ chức hoặc cá nhân. Gắn với các từ khóa như “benefit” “bioprospecting

–>> Besides, it is not clear that developing countries would necessarily benefit financially from extended bioprospecting of their rainforests. Pharmaceutical companies make huge profits from……….

–>> Đáp án: Pharmaceutical companies

Short Answer Questions không phải là một phần khó. Quan trọng nhất đối với dạng bài tập này là khả năng bắt keyword trong câu hỏi và tìm synonym/paraphrase của keyword đó. Vì thế khi học từ các bạn chú ý luyện tập paraphrase hoặc tìm synonym của từ vừa học nhé. Bên cạnh đó, chúng mình cũng nên quan tâm đến số lượng từ được cho phép trong một đáp án nữa nhé.

Chúc các bạn học tốt <3

Unit 1.2: Hướng dẫn làm bài tập “Short Answer Questions” – Mini Passage 2

I. REVIEW

Chào các bạn, đối với dạng bài tập Short Answer Questions, chúng ta cần phải làm như thế nào, chiến thuật làm bài ra sao nhỉ? Hãy cùng IELTS-Fighter review lại dạng bài tập này và thử sức với một Mini Passage nhé

Khi làm bài tập dạng câu hỏi Short Answer, chúng ta cần chú ý các điểm sau:

– Giới hạn số lượng từ cho mỗi đáp án

– Câu trả lời sẽ xuất hiện theo đúng trật tự bài đọc

– Xác định đáp án là loại từ nào (Noun/Verb/Adjective/Adverb)

– Lưu ý câu trả lời không nhất thiết phải đúng ngữ pháp, chỉ cần đúng ý

– Bắt key word trong câu hỏi, tìm synonyms hoặc paraphrase key words

II. MINI  PASSAGE

The scope of the problem facing the world’s cities is immense. In 1992, the United Nations Environmental Programme and the World Health Organisation (WHO) concluded that all of a sample of twenty megacities – places likely to have more than ten million inhabitants in the year 2000 – already exceeded the level the WHO deems healthy in at least one major pollutant. Two-thirds of them exceeded the guidelines for two, seven for three or more.

Of the six pollutants monitored by the WHO – carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, lead and particulate matter – it is this last category that is attracting the most attention from health researchers. PM10, a sub-category of particulate matter measuring ten-millionths of a meter across, has been implicated in thousands of deaths a year in Britain alone. Research being conducted in two counties of Southern California is reaching similarly disturbing conclusions concerning this little-understood pollutant.

A world-wide rise in allergies, particularly asthma, over the past four decades is now said to be linked with increased air pollution. The lungs and brains of children who grow up in polluted air offer further evidence of its destructive power. The old and ill; however, are the most vulnerable to the acute effects of heavily polluted stagnant air. It can actually hasten death, so it did in December 1991 when a cloud of exhaust fumes lingered over the city of London for over a week.

The United Nations has estimated that in the year 2000 there will be twenty-four mega-cities and a further eighty-five cities of more than three million people. The pressure on public officials, corporations and urban citizens to reverse established trends in air pollution is likely to grow in proportion with the growth of cities themselves. Progress is being made. The question, though, remains the same: ‘Will change happen quickly enough?’

Questions 1 – 3
You are advised to spend about 4 minutes on Questions 1-3
Look at Questions 1 – 3 below. Write your answers in boxes 1 – 3 on your Answer Sheet. 

 

Q1. How many pollutants currently exceed WHO guidelines in all megacities studied?

Q2. Which pollutant is currently the subject of urgent research?

Q3. Which group of people is the most severely affected by intense air pollution?

III. DISCUSSIONS

Bây giờ chúng ta cùng nhau tư duy và chọn ra đáp án đúng các em nhé.

(1) Đáp án chúng ta cần là một con số. Bằng số hoặc bằng chữ. Đáp án cần tìm phải đi chung với từ khóa “exceed”, “WHO “, “all”, “megacities” hoặc các synonyms của chúng

–>> all of a sample of twenty megacities……………..already exceeded the level the WHO deems healthy in at least one major pollutant.

–>> Đáp án: One

(2) Đáp án cần là một danh từ, một loại “pollutant”. Đáp án đó cần đi chung với từ khóa “urgent” hoặc synonym/paraphrases của từ khóa này.

–>> Of the six pollutants monitored by the WHO – carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, lead and particulate matter – it is this last category that is attracting the most attention from health researchers.

–>> Đáp án: Particulate matter

(3) Đáp án cần tìm là một cụm danh từ- một nhóm người. Đáp án cần đi chung với dạng so sánh nhất “The most severely affected” hoặc synonyms của nó

–>> The old and ill; however, are the most vulnerable to the acute effects of heavily polluted stagnant air.

–>> Đáp án: The old and ill

Short Answer Questions không phải là một phần khó. Quan trọng nhất đối với dạng bài tập này là khả năng bắt keyword trong câu hỏi và tìm synonym/paraphrase của keyword đó. Vì thế khi học từ các bạn chú ý luyện tập paraphrase hoặc tìm synonym của từ vừa học nhé. Bên cạnh đó, chúng mình cũng nên quan tâm đến số lượng từ được cho phép trong một đáp án nữa nhé.

Chúc các bạn học tốt <3

Unit 1.1: Hướng dẫn làm bài tập “Short Answer Questions” – Mini Passage 1

I. REVIEW

Chào các bạn, đối với dạng bài tập Short Answer Questions, chúng ta cần phải làm như thế nào, chiến thuật làm bài ra sao nhỉ? Hãy cùng IELTS-Fighter review lại dạng bài tập này và thử sức với một Mini Passage nhé

Khi làm bài tập dạng câu hỏi Short Answer, chúng ta cần chú ý các điểm sau:

– Giới hạn số lượng từ cho mỗi đáp án

– Câu trả lời sẽ xuất hiện theo đúng trật tự bài đọc

– Xác định đáp án là loại từ nào (Noun/Verb/Adjective/Adverb)

– Lưu ý câu trả lời không nhất thiết phải đúng ngữ pháp, chỉ cần đúng ý

– Bắt key word trong câu hỏi, tìm synonyms hoặc paraphrase key words

II. MINI  PASSAGE

North American meteorologists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s Hurricane Research Division have recently improved the success rate in their forecasting of where hurricanes are likely to hit land by an estimated 15 to 30%. This increase in accuracy is due to the use of instruments called GPS-dropwindsondes, which can probe the atmosphere surrounding a hurricane while it is still out at sea. The atmospheric characteristics of hurricanes over land are well understood because investigation is possible with weather balloons containing sophisticated meteorological instruments. When hurricanes are out of reach of balloons, gathering information is decidedly more difficult. Little is known of the weather conditions that guide hurricanes towards land.

 

An accurate estimation of where a hurricane will strike is essential in order to reduce loss of life and property. Hurricane Andrew, the most costly hurricane in U.S. history, killed 15 people and caused damage of $35 billion, in today’s dollars, in 1992. However, the unnamed : Category 4 2 hurricane which struck southeast Florida in 1926 and killed 243 people would have caused an estimated $77 billion if it had struck today. The reason for this is the explosion in population growth and development along the south-east coast of the U.S. during the last half century.

Hurricanes occur in cycles every few decades, the last intense period in the U.S. being from 1940 to 1969. ‘Camille’, a Category 5 hurricane of such catastrophic force that it caused over a billion and a half dollars worth of damage at the time and killed 256 people, struck the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in 1969 with winds over 320 km/h. Yet, for the last quarter century, hurricane activity has been relatively mild. Scientists do not know the precise reason for the cycles of hurricane activity, but they could be caused by a phenomenon called the ‘Atlantic Conveyor’. This is the name given to the gigantic current of water that flows cold from the top of the globe slowly along the Atlantic ocean floor to Antarctica and resurfaces decades later before flowing back north, absorbing heat as it crosses the equator. Since hurricanes derive their energy from the heat of warm water, it is thought that an increase in the speed of the’ Conveyor’, as it pulls warm water to the north, is an indicator of intensifying hurricane activity.

Questions 1 – 3
You are advised to spend about 4 minutes on Questions 1-3
Look at Questions 1 – 3 below. Write your answers in boxes 1 – 3 on your Answer Sheet. The first one has been done for you as an example.

Example: What do the letters NOAA stand for?

–>> the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Q1. Which instruments have recently increased the success rate of U.S. hurricane forecasts?

Q2. What reason is given for the lack of knowledge of hurricanes at sea?

Q3. What is the name of the strongest hurricane mentioned in the article?

III. DISCUSSIONS

Bây giờ chúng ta cùng nhau tư duy và chọn ra đáp án đúng các em nhé.

Lưu ý các câu hỏi  không giới hạn số lượng từ trong đáp án

(1) Đáp án cần là một danh từ. Danh từ này đi gần với các từ khóa như “instruments”, “increases” và “success rate”. Chúng ta cần tìm các từ này hoặc synonyms của chúng

–>> This increase in accuracy is due to the use of instruments called GPS-dropwindsondes

–>> Đáp án: GPS-dropwindsondes

(2) Cần một lý do. Lý do này đi kèm với các từ khóa như “lack of knowledge”, “sea”. Chúng ta sẽ dò các key words này hoặc synonyms của chúng

–>> ……investigation is possible with weather balloons containing sophisticated meteorological instruments. When hurricanes are out of reach of balloons, gathering information is decidedly more difficult.

–>> Đáp án: Weather balloons

(3) Cần tên một hurricane. Đáp án cần tìm phải đi chung với từ khóa “strongest”. Tuy nhiên, bài đọc không nhất thiết phải dùng chính xác từ khóa này mà có thể thay thế bằng các số liệu về cái chết hoặc tổn thất, hoặc xếp loại “Category

–>> Đáp án: Camille

Short Answer Questions không phải là một phần khó. Quan trọng nhất đối với dạng bài tập này là khả năng bắt keyword trong câu hỏi và tìm synonym/paraphrase của keyword đó. Vì thế khi học từ các bạn chú ý luyện tập paraphrase hoặc tìm synonym của từ vừa học nhé. Bên cạnh đó, chúng mình cũng nên quan tâm đến số lượng từ được cho phép trong một đáp án nữa nhé.

Chúc mọi người học tốt <3

Unit 7: Hướng dẫn làm bài tập matching heading

Bài chia sẻ ngày hôm nay sẽ hướng dẫn bạn cách làm một số ví dụ trong dạng bài Nối tiêu đề – Matching headings.

Cùng nghiên cứu ví dụ sau đây. Dưới đây là 2 đoạn văn được trích từ bài báo “Trees in Trouble – What is causing the decline of the World’s giant forests?’

Paragraph 1- Big trees are incredibly important ecologically. For a start, they sustain countless other species. They provide shelter for many animals, and their trunks and branches can become gardens, hung with green ferns, orchids and bromeliads, coated with mosses and draped with vines. With their tall canopies basking in the sun, they capture vast amounts of energy. This allows them to sustain much of the animal life in the forest.

Paragraph 2- Only a small number of tree species have the genetic capacity to grow really big. The mightiest are native to Northern America, but big trees grow all over the globe, from the tropics to the boreal forests of the high latitudes. To achieve giant stature, a tree needs three things: the right place to establish its seedling, good growing conditions and lots of time with low adult mortality. Disrupt any of these, and you can lost your biggest trees.

Match the two paragraphs with two of the following three headings:

  1. How wildlife benefits from big tress
  2. Factors that enable trees to grow to significant heights
  3. How other plants can cause harm

Hướng dẫn làm bài:

Nếu bạn đọc 2 đoạn văn trên, bạn sẽ thấy có rất nhiều từ khó như ‘bromeliads’, ‘basking’ and ‘stature’. Tuy vậy, bạn không cần bận tâm đến chúng vì cách làm của bạn phải là:  đọc những câu đầu và câu cuối của đoạn văn để tìm ý chính.

Đoạn 1: Ngay câu đầu ta thấy câu khẳng định tầm quan trọng của cây “Big trees are incredibly important ecologically.” Và những cụm từ thể hiện tầm quan trọng của cây đối với những sinh vật khác “they sustain…” “They provide shelter…” à đáp án là “How wildlife benefits from big trees”

Đoạn 2: ta thấy những cụm từ được bôi vàng đậm : A tree needs three things: the right place to establish its seedling, good growing conditions…–> câu nói mang tính liệt kê. à đáp án là “Factors that enable tree to grow to significant heights”